COACHING MODEL

Coaching modelsFullSizeRender-3

A coaching model is a framework; it does not tell you how to coach but, rather, it’s the underlying structure that you can use when you’re coaching someone. It’s like having a high-level strategy that allows you to “see the battlefield,” therefore increasing your ability to respond adequately to whatever situation you’re faced with.

Two popular coaching models are the FUEL model and the GROW model. The FUEL model finds mention in the book The Extraordinary Coach: How the Best Leaders Help Others Grow, by John H. Zenger and Kathleen Stinnett. John Whitmore popularized the GROW model in Coaching for Performance: GROWing Human Potential and Purpose — The Principles and Practice of Coaching and Leadership.

Let’s take a brief look at both these models.

FUEL model

The four steps in the FUEL model are:

  1. Frame the conversation — Set the context for conversation by agreeing on purpose, process, and desired outcomes of the discussion.
  2. Understand the current state — Explore the current state from the coachee’s point of view, expanding his or her awareness of the situation to determine the real coaching issue.
  3. Explore the desired state — Articulate the vision of success and explore multiple alternative paths before prioritizing methods of achieving this vision.
  4. Lay out a success plan — Identify the specific, time-bound action steps to be taken to achieve the desired results, and determine milestones for follow-up and accountability.

Frame the conversation. Framing the conversation ensures that the coach and the coachee agree to be in the same conversation and makes explicit what the conversation is about. It is important to remember that the coach owns the process, whereas the coachee owns the content of the conversation.

  • Identify the behavior or issue to discuss.
    • I’d like to talk about this issue . . . [if the coach initiates the conversation]
    • What is the most important thing for us to focus on? [if the coachee initiates the conversation]
  • Determine the purpose or outcomes of the conversation.
    • By the end of conversation, I would like to accomplish . . .
    • What else would you like to make sure that we address?
  • Agree on the process for the conversation
    • Here’s how I thought we could proceed . . .
    • How does that sound?

Understand the current state. As the coach begins to understand the current state, he needs to maintain a curious mind-set. As a coach, you play two key roles during this stage of the conversation: acting as a mirror and being a great exploration guide. Asking open-ended, nonleading questions allows greater insight and clarity to both the coach and the coachee. It is important to understand that people will not change until they feel a need to change. The coach needs to offer his or her perspective only when it adds to the conversation and creates greater awareness for the coachee.

  • Understand the coachee’s point of view.
    • How do you see this situation?
    • What is happening?
    • What is working well?
    • What makes this challenging?
    • How might you have contributed to this situation?
    • How might others see this situation?
  • Determine the consequences of continuing on the current path.
    • What impact is this having on you? On others?
    • What are the consequences if the situation does not change?
    • How does this influence your goals and what you are trying to accomplish?
    • What are the long-term implications?
  • Offer your perspective.
    • Could I share some observations I made?
    • Could I offer some other consequences to consider?

Explore the desired state. It is of utmost importance that the coach does not rush the coachee into problem solving — it needs to be slow and deliberate to create the ideal vision and generate alternatives for achieving the vision. The coach must negotiate and influence as to what would form part of the minimum measures of success. If the coachee gets stuck, the coach should step to his or her side and become a brainstorming partner.

  • Understand the vision for success.
    • What would you like to see happen here?
    • What would your ideal state look like?
  • Set goals and performance expectations.
    • What are your goals? What would you like to accomplish?
    • Here’s how I see it . . .
  • Explore alternative paths of action.
    • What might be some approaches you can take?
    • What else might work?
    • Could I offer a couple of thoughts? You might want to consider . . .
  • Explore possible barriers.
    • What are the major barriers preventing this change from happening?
    • Where would the biggest resistance to this change come from?

Lay out a success plan. In the last step, the coachee needs to articulate specific action steps to gain clarity as to what needs to happen next. This will provide the coachee with a clear vision on the goal to be achieved. The coach assigns timelines to the action points for follow-up and accountability. The coach finds creative ways to support the coachee in achieving his goals.

  • Develop and agree on an action plan and timeliness.
    • What specific actions will help you achieve your goal?
    • What will your first step be?
    • Who can help hold you accountable?
    • How long will you stay focused on your goals and plans?
  • Enlist support from others.
    • Who can support you in moving forward?
    • How can I support you?
  • Set milestones for follow-up and accountability.
    • Let’s review the plan.
    • When should we touch base on this again?

GROW model

The GROW Model is a simple yet powerful framework for structuring your coaching or mentoring sessions. GROW stands for Goal, Current Reality, Options, and Will or way forward. A good analogy about the GROW model is to think how you would plan a journey. You initially decide where you are going (goal); understand where you currently are (current reality); explore various routes to your destination (options); and finally proceed on the journey (will), successfully overcoming any obstacles you may have along the way.

Like most coaching models, the GROW model assumes that the coach is not an expert in the client’s situation. He only acts as a facilitator, offering advice and helping the client choose the best option of his own volition.

Establish the goal. First, the coach and the coachee need to look at the behavior that they want to change and then structure this change as a goal  to achieve.

With respect to setting goals, it is important to distinguish between end goals and performance goals. An end goal is the final objective — become the market leader, be appointed a sales director, win the gold medal, etc. — which is seldom within your control. A performance goal identifies the performance level that will provide a good chance of achieving the end goal. The performance goal is largely within one’s control and generally provides a means of measuring progress. Examples could include “95 percent of production to pass quality control the first time,” “Reduce weight by ten pounds by December 2013,” etc. An end goal should, wherever possible, be supported by a performance goal. The end goal may provide the inspiration, but the performance goal defines the specification.

Besides supporting an end goal with a performance goal, goals need not only be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Actionable, Realistic, Time-bound) but PURE (Positively stated, Understood, Relevant, Ethical) and CLEAR (Challenging, Legal, Environmentally sound, Appropriate, Recorded).

When doing this, it’s useful to ask questions like:

  • How will you know that you have achieved the goal? How will you know that the problem or issue is solved?
  • Does this goal fit with your overall career objectives? And does it fit with the team’s objectives?

Examine the current reality. The coachee is asked to describe his or her current reality. Too often, people try to solve a problem or reach a goal without fully considering their starting point, and often they are missing some information that they need in order to reach their goal effectively. It is in the reality phase that the questions should most often be initiated by the interrogatives “what,” “when,” “where,” “who,” and “how much.” How and why should be used only sparingly or when no other phrase will suffice. The reality answers should be descriptive, not judgmental, to ensure honesty and accuracy. The answers must be of sufficient quality and frequency to provide the coach with a feedback loop.

Questions include:

  • What is happening now (what, who, when, and how often)? What is the effect or result of this?
  • Have you already taken any steps toward your goal?
  • Does this goal conflict with any other goals or objectives?

Explore the options. The purpose of this stage is not to find the “right” answer but to create and list as many alternative courses of action as possible. The quantity of options is more important at this stage than the quality or feasibility of the options. It is from this broad range of creative possibilities that specific action steps will be selected. The coach would need to create an environment in which the participants feel safe enough to express their thoughts and ideas without inhibition or fear of judgment from the coach or others. Once a comprehensive list is prepared, the Will phase of coaching may be simple, selecting the best from the list. However, in certain complex cases, it may be necessary to reexamine the list by noting the costs and benefits of each course of action.

Typical questions include

  • What else could you do?
  • What if this or that constraint were removed? Would that change things?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of each option?
  • What factors or considerations will you use to weigh the options?
  • What do you need to stop doing in order to achieve this goal?
  • What obstacles stand in your way?

Establish the will. The purpose of the final phase of the coaching sequence is to convert the discussion into a decision.

Useful questions to ask here include:

  • So what will you do now, and when? What else will you do?
  • Will this action meet your goal?
  • What could stop you moving forward? How will you overcome this?
  • How can you keep yourself motivated?
  • What support do you need?
  • On a scale of 1 to 10, what is the degree of certainty you have that you will carry out the actions agreed?
  • When do you need to review progress? Daily, weekly, monthly? 

Finally, decide on a date when you’ll both review the coachee’s progress. This will provide some accountability and allow for a change in approach if the original plan isn’t working. Thanks scrumalliance.FullSizeRender-3

COLLABORATIVE TEAMS

EIGHT WAYS TO BUILD COLLABORATIVE TEAMS

By Lynda Gratton and Tamara J. Erickson

The successful execution of a major initiative requires a complex team comprised of many educated specialists from diverse backgrounds. However, while the complexity of a team may be beneficial to an initiative, it can also make collaboration extremely challenging. To maximize the effectiveness of large, complex teams, the following eight practices are recommended:

1. Invest in building and maintaining social relationship practices. Executives can build and maintain social relationships throughout their organizations with “signature practices,” or highly visible investments that demonstrate commitment to collaboration.

2. Model collaborative behavior. Executive teams must support a culture of collaboration by making their own collaborative efforts visible to the rest of their organizations.Screen Shot 2015-08-23 at 01.28.49

3. Create a “gift culture.” A “gift culture” is one where employees view interactions with leaders and colleagues as valuable and generous. This can be cultivated if executives embed mentoring and coaching into their routine behavior and throughout their companies.

4. Ensure the requisite skills. Collaboration improves when HR departments teach employees how to build relationships, communicate well, and resolve conflicts.

5. Support a strong sense of community. People are more likely to reach out to others and share knowledge when they feel a sense of community. HR can foster a community spirit by sponsoring events like networking groups or weekend gatherings.

6. Assign team leaders who are task- and relationship-oriented. The most successful team leaders are able to be task-oriented in the beginning stages of a project and shift to being relationship builders as conflict between members arises.

7. Build on heritage relationships. As people are reluctant to share knowledge with strangers, it is necessary to ensure team members know one another.

8. Ensure role clarity and task ambiguity. Cooperation increases when the roles of individual team members are clearly defined but the path to the achieving the team’s goal is left somewhat ambiguous. Task ambiguity promotes creative thinking and collaboration.

WHY TEAMS DON’T WORK

WHY TEAMS DON’T WORK

By Diane Coutu

Teams consistently underperform, despite the extra resources they have, because of problems with coordination, motivation, and competition. Team expert Professor J. Richard Hackman argues that while even the best leaders cannot guarantee that their teams will deliver results, they can increase the likelihood of their success by setting the following conditions:

*The team is “real.” Leaders must be ruthlessly clear about who is on the team and who is not. Sometimes this requires forcing ill-suited members off the team.

*The team has a compelling direction. Leaders must articulate a clear direction to ensure members do not pursue different agendas. Members must know and agree on the work they are collaborating on.

*The team has expert coaching. When it comes to group processes, teams need guidance from expert coaches who can:

*Run launch meetings to orient team members with the tasks at hand.

*Help teams conduct midpoint reviews to determine what is working and what is not.Screen Shot 2015-09-30 at 10.55.15 am

*Regularly reflect on finished work to identify successes and shortcomings and how members can make the best use of their experiences the next time around.

*The team has a designated deviant. To avoid complacency, leaders must assign “deviants,” or naysayers who challenge their teams’ desire for homogeneity.

Leading with RESPECT

Teams of all types have the best chance to become SuperTeams when their leaders understand the critical importance of RESPECT. This includes the following elements:Screen Shot 2015-09-13 at 2.55.05 pm

*Recognition: Making sure that people are recognized individually and appropriately for their contributions.

*Empowerment: Giving team members the autonomy and decision-mak ing authority they need to get things done.

*Supportive feedback: Providing prompt, actionable feedback on a routine basis.

*Partnering: Acting as an ally and advocate for team members.

*Expectations: Ensuring that roles and responsibilities are clearly defined and equitable.

*Consideration: Recognizing that team members are human and need understanding and thoughtfulness.

*Trust: Demonstrating confidence in team members by trusting them with important tasks.

Trust importance

Trust is the foundation for respect, and vice versa. On a SuperTeam, trust is a core characteristic that gives people the freedom they need to share information, work collaboratively, and provide critical feedback to other team members.

Trust enhances efficiency and effectiveness by reducing the need to communicate; people who trust each other to get a job done do not need to check in with each other, check up on one another’s’ work, or fear that anyone is pursuing a personal agenda. There are five important ways to build trust:

1. Overcommunicate. The more people communicate, the more they are trusted for their transparency.

2. Give trust. When people feel trusted, they are more likely to return that trust.

3. Ask for feedback. Asking others for feedback is a way of showing trust in and respect for their opinions.

4. Disclose. People who share personal information and get to know their teammates enhance others’ trust in them.

5. Be someone who can be counted on. Trusted members on a team are willing to help others when they need it.

RESPECT MODEL

THE RESPECT MODEL

Recognition

Recognition is a very powerful tool. People who are recognized for their efforts on the job feel respected, validated, and secure. They are more likely to engage, work harder, and feel better about what they do. Conversely, when their productive behaviors go unrecognized, people are less likely to repeat those behaviors.

Recognition does not come naturally to most people. Team members and leaders need to make recognition a priority by using simple tools like writing thank you notes, sending e-mail “shout outs,” or taking deserving individuals out for coffee.

Empowerment

When employees are empowered, they can think, behave, and act autonomously. They are able to maximize their potential as team members and their opportunities to succeed, which leads them to take initiative and achieve more success. Unfortunately, there are many forms of resistance to empowering people, including:

*Team leaders who fear that giving autonomy and authority to others diminishes their own importance.

*Team leaders who lack knowledge of how to empower others.

*An unwillingness to spend money on training that is necessary to help people succeed.

On a SuperTeam, strategic development plans are created for every member. Team leaders determine when and what type of training is needed, and seek appropriate new challenges for everyone. Relatively inexpensive ways to enhance the empowerment process include:

*Offering cross-training so team members can support and cover for each other.

*Auditing the team’s skills in order to address talent needs.

*Establishing clear decision-making boundaries.

*Learning not just what the team is doing, but why things are done a certain way.

Supportive Feedback 

Supportive feedback involves sharing straightforward, constructive perceptions and advice to help people improve. It should be encouraging, specific, and actionable. On a SuperTeam, feedback is both given and received respectfully; the giver shows respect by caring about the recipient’s growth and development, while the recipient shows respect by being open to the feedback and appreciative of the giver’s effort. Moreover, SuperTeam members take the initiative to ask each other for feedback.pphoto

It is not easy to provide supportive feedback, but there are ten specific ways that SuperTeam members can improve how their feedback is structured and delivered:

1. Ask permission. When people give permission to a provider of feedback, they are less likely to react to the feedback defensively.

2. Pull the individual into a discussion of what went wrong. This approach is more effective than when a feedback provider simply pushes a point of view.

3. Focus on behaviors, not attitudes. When people improve their behaviors, their attitudes change as well.

4. Avoid judging or preaching. Assume the individual welcomes an opportunity to perform more successfully.

5. Show empathy. People who have experienced poor outcomes feel vulnerable and appreciate a feedback provider’s understanding.

6. Comment on what worked as well as what failed. This approach enhances the feedback recipient’s perception of fairness.

7. Take a TeamWe approach. Feedback to a team member should be given in the spirit of collaboration.

8. Seek to understand. Instead of making assumptions, the feedback provider should ask questions about what happened from the recipient’s point of view.

9. Speak from an “I” perspective. Feedback providers must recognize that theirs is a personal perspective, and that they should be open to the perspectives of others.

10. Be straight. Feedback should be delivered in a straightforward way, not watered down or obfuscated.

Partnering

SuperTeams go beyond collaboration; they work together to partner in ongoing, committed relationships where each member has the others’ interests at heart. These partnerships may be short or long term, formed to accomplish specific tasks or to achieve visionary goals. They may include other teams both inside and outside of organizations.

Unfortunately, many partnerships fail to realize their true potential. Based on the authors’ research, failure can most effectively be avoided when teams pay attention to 12 key organizational and interpersonal factors:

1. Clear and compelling vision. The efforts of partners may be misaligned in the absence of a shared vision.

2. Core values. There should be partnership agreement on the principles that determine what is important to all members.

3. Culture. Culture is the underpinning of social mores and how things work in a partnership.

4. Clear roles and responsibilities. All members must clearly understand what they are counted on to do and what will be done by other members.

5. Complementary roles and synergy. Teams often include people with different but complementary skills and abilities. To function as partnerships, team members need clarity about what talents are needed and how to obtain them.

6. Cross-training. In powerful partnerships, people are trained to be able to support and cover for each other.

7. Competence. Partners take responsibility for helping others learn the skills they need or shift roles to take advantage of their strengths.

8. Clear performance goals and expectations. In a partnership, people’s performance can be clearly evaluated based on criteria that everyone knows.

9. Commitment. Partners are committed to the team for the long term and are willing to address any weakening of commitments that may occur.

10. Collaboration. Partners collaborate not only to accomplish specific tasks, but also to build relationships and support each other.

11. Character. Personal integrity of all members is an indispensable element in effective partnerships.

12. Communication. Partners must have open lines of communication at all times, especially when there are relationship problems.

RESPECT : key for team

Throughout human history, respect has been a cornerstone of functioning societies. Social order arose from people’s respect for their leaders and gods. Highly respected people were protected from harm and given access to superior food, shelter, and other resources.

Respect, or success in influencing others, is also a basis for power. Powerful individuals are skilled at getting others to listen to them and to act in accordance with their opinions and desires. However, if these people lose respect, they also lose their influence.

In the workplace, respect is the foundation of engagement; employees engage when they feel respected and disengage when they feel disrespected. On a SuperTeam, it is critical to foster respect on both interpersonal and technical levels, and members must see each other as trustworthy, kind, and supportive in order to get the job done. There are ten respectful workplace behaviors that individuals should aspire to:

  1. Being punctual to meetings and considerate of others’ time.
  2. Giving credit where it is due.
  3. Being supportive of others during meetings.
  4. Encouraging the contributions of others during meetings.
  5. Giving full attention to others when they speak.
  6. Asking people before putting them on e-mail lists.
  7. Asking team members about their personal lives.
  8. Asking team members for advice.
  9. Offering to help other team members.
  10. Inviting coworkers to lunch.

Conversely, there are also ten common behaviors that communicate disrespect:

  1. Gossiping.
  2. Being late.
  3. Accusing or placing blame on others.
  4. Berating others.
  5. Bragging.
  6. Being dictatorial.
  7. Being condescending.
  8. Withholding information or providing misleading information.
  9. Inappropriately copying others on e-mails.
  10. Dismissing others’ opinions.

The most extreme form of disrespect is bullying, a pattern of intimidating, threatening, and humiliating others that is estimated by the Workplace Bullying Institute to be experienced by 35 percent of workers. Unfortunately, bullies are often tolerated because they are viewed as valuable to their organizations. But for a SuperTeam to function effectively, it must hold bullies accountable for their actions. As soon as bullying behaviors occur, individuals must be confronted, spoken to, and stopped.

Superteam : engagement

A team is comprised of two or more people working together toward a common goal. A SuperTeam goes beyond the performance of ordinary teams to consistently deliver superior outcomes relative to customer expectations. Critically, SuperTeam members do not pursue personal goals or agendas; they are solely focused on achieving success as defined by their customers.

Engagement is a measure of employees’ commitment and how vigorously they apply their talents and energy to the job at hand. High engagement on a team means that members:

*Willingly exceed what is required.

*Are not derailed by challenges and problems.

*Are proactive.

*Hold themselves accountable for results.

*Work collaboratively and synergistically.relationalskills

SuperTeams need TeamWe players. These are people who are engaged not only with their own work, but also with the work of other members. They take responsibility for, provide constructive feedback to, and help one another. They avoid the behaviors of TeamMe players who are selfish, disloyal, and committed only to their own advancement. Some highly engaged people may be superstars, or standouts in terms of talents and efforts, but in order to contribute to SuperTeams they must be willing to focus their attention on the accomplishments of their teams, act as coaches or mentors, and serve as role models for less skilled team members.

Fundamentally, building teams is about building relationships. When team members barely know each other, it is hard for them to be engaged with others’ work. Conversely, personal connections–often created in simple, low-cost ways like holding team pizza parties–lead to the mutual commitment that characterizes SuperTeams.

Eight Ways to Reduce Failures

Diverse and dissenting ideas are the nucleus of creativity and innovation. Group leaders can use these eight strategies to elicit these ideas:

1. Asking questions instead of suggesting outcomes. Leaders should focus less on sharing their own opinions and more on collecting information from others — particularly from those with less influence or who might be less comfortable sharing.

2. Encouraging critical thinking and differing viewpoints. If consensus is emphasized, people are less likely to reveal what they know. Group members who engage in critical thinking do not always get along.

3. Rewarding group success. If everyone in the group is rewarded once there is a successful outcome, members will be more likely to speak up. Cascades will be reduced, and all members will have a stake in reaching a correct group decision.

4. Identifying the unique expertise of each group member before deliberation begins. By ensuring that people have unique roles or tasks, each person’s contribution to the discussion is unique.

5. Changing perspective. Groups are more likely to follow a failing course of action than an individual would. Asking what a new leader would do can create a needed critical perspective.

6. Soliciting sincere differing viewpoints. Studies have found that token devil’s advocacy merely reinforces consensus. Only genuine dissension yields better decisions.

7. Experimenting with contrarian teams. A second team that takes an opposing position can uncover errors or vulnerabilities in a group’s proposal.

8. Collecting anonymous opinions. Group leaders should employ formal methods of obtaining individually held information, such as the Delphi method.

Perhaps the best strategy is to utilize data and analytics as much as possible. Sunstein and Hastie invoke the book Moneyball, by Michael Lewis, which contends that statistical analysis is more reliable than subjective analysis.

WHAT WOMAN WANT

WOMEN AND THE HOME

In recent years, oversized houses (that are sometimes referred to as “McMansions”) have enjoyed great popularity. Yet, Underhill believes that these houses appeal more to men’s sensibilities than to women’s. Data suggests that empty nesters want to downsize, and houses which suit nontraditional families sell at a premium. Home buyers do not mind sacrificing space in exchange for homes that have features they will really use. For example, home offices, home exercise rooms, or standalone apartments for elderly parents or adult children are all growing in popularity.

Kennecott Land, a real estate development group, created a market advisory board comprised of only women. This group largely advocated for kitchens that incorporate the children. A kitchen of this type would have multi-level counters and open out onto a play area. Another concept that the group recommended was a “family bathroom”–that is, a pair of side by side bathrooms with a door in between. This configuration would work well for parents who need to supervise young children, but still want some privacy.

Another appealing concept for women is “New Urbanist Communities” like Seaside, Florida. These towns are a blend of city and suburb where residents are always looking out for one another. The communities are structured in a way that people can walk to do their shopping. Underhill notes, however, that New Urbanist Communities are not for everyone due to the uniform housing styles and structures related to community living.

The Kitchen

Over time, the role and design of the kitchen has changed significantly. Before the Civil War, it was known primarily the woman’s “work room.” In the Victorian era, new kitchen technologies were invented, and as the years rolled on, architects began to construct kitchens directly around appliances. As women returned to the workplace in the 1970s and 1980s, however, they no longer wanted the kitchen to be a separate, isolated room from the rest of the house, and it began to become more integrated.

Today, Underhill describes the kitchen as the social center of the home. Since open plan kitchens blend with other rooms, kitchen appliances are being designed to be more attractive and unobtrusive. High end homes often have “mega-kitchens” with dedicated zones for different tasks and professional grade appliances. Underhill notes that if the kitchen is the woman’s domain, then men have embraced the sophisticated backyard barbecue as a place to use powerful gas grills and other gadgets.

The Bathroom

Like the kitchen, bathrooms have also been transformed over time. In the past, the bathroom was a room that no women wanted to be seen visiting. Today, the bathroom is a refuge for overworked women. Underhill describes modern bathrooms as a place characterized by hedonism, luxury, fantasy, and self-regard. He believes that bathrooms reflect comfort for a woman, as well as how highly she thinks of herself. Both kitchens and bathrooms are a status symbol for today’s modern woman. In terms of features and functionality, the minimum for a high-end bathroom is a spa tub. Adequate storage in the bathroom is another feature that women prize highly.

The Home Office

When Underhill was young, home offices were cluttered rooms that parents used as in-house getaways. Home offices today are still popular–a 2005 survey by the American Institute of Architects found that home offices were the most requested feature in home design projects. However, they look very different from the home offices of the past. A home office today is very welcoming and for women it represents a way to blend the external and domestic worlds. In fact, the dominant influence of contemporary home office culture is women.

In a home office, mothers and children work side by side on their laptops. This enables women to ensure that children are doing their homework and using the Internet appropriately. The all-in-one printer is a major time saver for women, enabling them to print, scan, copy, and fax materials for every member of the family.

Two essential technologies for the home office are wireless Internet and wireless Bluetooth. Thanks to the Internet, a woman can research purchases online from the comfort of her home office and then drive to the nearest store to make the purchase or buy online. Underhill also describes the Internet as a source of “secondary shopping therapy.” It is possible for women to window shop online and view the latest fashion in cities all over the world. He goes on to suggest that there are certain characteristics that make a website more appealing to women. These include providing entertainment value, creating a welcoming environment, and not requiring users to enter too much personal information. Office product superstores are the example that Underhill gives for an industry that has mastered female unfriendly websites. These are sites that definitely should not be emulated by companies who want to attract more women shoppers.

Home Exercise and Wellness Rooms

Although women use public gyms extensively, these venues are often visually, emotionally, and physically over-stimulating. Many women prefer a dedicated room in their home for exercise and wellness activities. Underhill believes that for women home gyms equate to being in control, while also doing something good for themselves. In addition to traditional exercise equipment, many home gyms have an area devoted to more contemplative activities that appeal to women, such as yoga or Pilates. Benefits of a home gym include no membership fee, no crowds, no discomfort from other people watching, and the flexibility to engage in routines that are as long as one likes. “In-home” personal trainers are also appealing to women because they focus on fostering a person relationship.

In reality, however, not everyone has the space for a home gym. Fortunately, more public athletic clubs are focusing on women’s needs. One example is the Curves chain which offers a “women only” gym experience. Many gyms have expanded their offerings to include yoga and Pilates classes, rock climbing, massage therapists, and cafes.

Home Maintenance

Household help is very common in other countries, especially emerging markets. However, in the United States, most people do their own housework. In fact, home maintenance is an area where women are playing a much larger role. Underhill describes women who undertake maintenance and home improvement projects as “tool belt divas.” A tool belt diva in her forties may have been required as a child to assist her single mother with maintenance tasks, or perhaps she simply has an interest in understanding how things work. Over the years, as women gained independence and went to work, many shared apartments with other women or lived on their own. Since these women did not want to rely on men for help and they were often on a budget, they became involved with maintenance tasks.

Television shows have educated women about home improvement projects, and websites like BeJane.com target female do-it-yourselfers. Most women who embrace home maintenance work will only hire a professional if the job requires too much physical strength or if the costs of the necessary tools are excessive. It is estimated that women spend approximately $50 billion on home improvement products annually. Underhill notes that in many cases, men appreciate the efforts of tool belt divas and are not at all resentful of their entrance into the traditionally male world of home improvement and maintenance.

WOMEN AND TRAVEL

Women travelers are very particular about hotel rooms. They notice the cleanliness, lighting, temperature, color, flooring, size or firmness of the pillows, and whether or not they feel safe. Underhill believes that every major hotel chain has revamped its properties and service to accommodate the needs of single female travelers.

For example, most lobby check-in counters now have a raised ledge below the actual counter which is ideal for resting a purse or briefcase. In addition, it has become standard practice for the clerk to write the room number inside a folded envelope which contains the key. This ensures privacy and helps guests feel more secure.

Underhill interviewed Pam Dillon, a professional and frequent traveler, to gather her insights about hotels and how they can be made more appealing to women. In addition to the room being clean, she made the following observations:

* For men, the gender of bellhops and room service staff is a non-issue. However, Dillon believes that many women would be more comfortable if they could interact with a female bellhop and/or room service clerk.

* Pillows and furniture are important. If a hotel can meet a female traveler’s pillow needs, it will go a long way toward promoting loyalty. Also, furniture and fixtures should be no more than two to three years old.

* It is also important to women to have the ability to adjust the temperature. This should be easy to control.

* For many women, the bathroom can make or break a stay. Warm efficient lighting is essential and some women are particular about the amenities, like soap and shampoo. Bowed shower curtains are a female friendly feature which makes the shower less claustrophobic and prevents physical contact with the shower curtain.

Dillon noted that her ideal hotel room would be customized to her, in terms of pillows, soft linens, and soft towels. The hotel would ideally know her preferences, but she would not want to feel that she has been invaded to get that information.

WOMEN AND ELECTRONICS PURCHASES

Even though almost half of U.S. electronics purchases are made by women, female buyers tend to avoid big box electronics stores. These retailers are perceived as having too many things to select from and not enough personalized service. Instead, women tend to purchase electronics online. Underhill’s research has found a clear correlation between the success of a store and the number of female employees working on the floor. Women tend to trust other women more and when buying electronics, female consumers are turned off by male employees who treat them in a condescending way.

Underhill visited a Best Buy store to evaluate whether the retailer was configured in a female friendly way. He found that a woman store manager and the inclusion of women in the store advertising added a sense of intimacy to the store environment. Most women buy technology and consumer electronics as tools to facilitate relationships and their day-to-day lives, not to accumulate “cool gadgets.” Underhill states that “men buy instruments of technology, while women buy instruments of relationship.” A proven way to sell to women is to create a ready built picture that both display products and engage the imaginations about what is possible. However, the Best Buy store had very few of these types of displays. In the laptop product category, women often make their purchase decision based on how much the computer weighs. Yet, the store had no signs to indicate which laptop was the lightest model. At the checkout line, there was no sign that informed shoppers that employees would help them get heavy items loaded into their cars. This service would be very welcome by women. Best Buy’s installation team–the Geek Squad–is comprised of mostly men. This service might be more appealing to women if there were more female “geeks” on the team. On the positive side, Underhill found the women’s restroom to be clean, bright, and marbled.

WOMEN AND “VICES”

As with the economy in general, women have significant economic power in product categories that are often considered “vices”–gambling, smoking, and alcohol.

* Gambling. Until the late 1980s, casinos viewed slot machines as a way to keep women occupied while men played at the gambling tables. However, the gaming industry quickly realized that they were earning more income from slot machines than table games. In addition, they were making more money from women than men. Women are the primary gamblers at slot machines and efforts have been made to make them more appealing to this demographic group. Slot machines have been themed to evoke memories of childhood television programs, multiple play features let people make more than one bet at a time, and penny machines that demand greater concentration are especially popular with women. Many casinos have also introduced loyalty cards to track customer winnings and often in casino hotel rooms, a woman will be on the television explaining the rules of every casino game.

* Weight Loss and Smoking. Many women have a conflicted relationship with food. Every day, Americans spend $109 million on average on dieting and diet-related products. While men are more likely to diet for health reasons, women diet in response to social pressures. Women make a clear connection between cigarettes and weight loss. Most cigarettes targeted at female customers are long, thin, and tubular. From a retail perspective, convenience stores are the most popular places to buy cigarettes, followed by drugstores. Underhill notes that the stores that carry cigarettes are geared heavily to their communities. In blue collar communities, the percentage of smokers is much higher than in high end neighborhoods. In addition to helping with weight loss, the author adds that smoking is seen as a way to punctuate time and an excuse for taking a break.

* Alcohol. According to the author, in the liquor industry, marketers focus on three factors to appeal to women customers: light, bright, and white. In the case of alcohol, this translates into white wine, light beer, and any product that is luminous, sparkly, or colorful. White wine sales, in particular, have increased significantly among female consumers. Many wine producers have created what they believe are female friendly labels that are often pink and overly cute. A better approach would be to consider what criteria women bring to wine selection. With regard to beer, most women buy beer for social gatherings. Yet, beer manufacturers and marketers have never positioned beer as the drink of choice for social gatherings that center around a meal. This is a missed opportunity according to Underhill.

WOMEN AND SHOPPING

The retail world is very familiar to women, but there is much more that retailers can do to attract female shoppers. Underhill analyzes women’s preferences related to clothing, shopping malls, food shopping, drugstores, and cosmetics.

Clothing Stores

Department store shopping has slowed significantly over time. This is due partially to the fact that women simply do not have three to four hours to shop. In addition, most department stores are divided into small branded “fiefdoms.” This is not consistent with how women shop. The typical female consumer does not identify with a single designer.

As a result, it is not surprising that specialty stores are overtaking department stores. They are smaller, more focused, have better trained employees, and better dressing rooms. Although department stores will not disappear in the twenty-first century, Underhill predicts that there will be fewer of them in the future.

Another benefit of specialty stores is their ability to serve a particular demographic. Banana Republic, for example, split its stores by gender and has outperformed Gap. Women over fifty are a customer group that is almost completely overlooked by clothing retailers, yet this group controls a large amount of income. In general, consumers want value, price, and convenience, but value is by far the most important factor.

Shopping Malls

Modern shopping malls must provide a more comprehensive experience and shopping solution to customers. One example of a mall that is driven by female consumer preferences is The Grove in Los Angeles. The Grove duplicates an ideal urban experience, where various ethnicities mingle in a secure environment. It offers a lawn, farmers’ market, and a streetcar. Underhill believes that The Grove offers what contemporary women want from a mall–a safe form of escape.

The modern mall must evolve into a place where women can do all sorts of errands, ranging from getting a key made or shoes repaired to dropping off dry cleaning and picking up dinner. Malls must be integrated into the fiber of daily life. Underhill believes that adding food, groceries, drugstores and more to a mall makes it more of a center and will keep female shoppers there longer. He sees no reason why Target, Whole Foods, and Neiman Marcus cannot co-exist within the same mall complex.

Retail must follow housing trends. It is not surprising then that urban retailing has been enjoying a resurgence, as people move back into cities like New York and Chicago. At a tactical level, modern malls should follow Underhill’s checklist, which includes clean dressing rooms with ample space and flattering lighting, and a place for men to sit comfortably while their wives, significant others, or daughters shop.

Food and Farmers’ Markets

Women have contributed significantly to the popularity of farmers’ markets. Within the world of agriculture, women are playing a major role. Underhill believes one reason that small scale production and processing of food has traditionally been a female world is because many women love to garden.

The farmers’ market movement has improved the quality of life in many neighborhoods and consumers have discovered how enjoyable it is to buy directly from the source. Farmers’ markets are actively striving to expand their appeal to a broader range of customers. One important step in this process is to bring in vendors who resemble the customers that the market hopes to attract.

On a larger scale, Whole Foods has done a great job of offering a convenient shopping solution to people who want organic and healthful foods. The chain manages the customer experience well, and the overall operating culture is friendly. Whole Foods has become a facilitator for people who want to live a more balanced lifestyle.

Drugstores

Women comprise over 60 percent of drugstores’ customers. Since drugstores’ target customer group is women over the age of forty, stores tend to be structured around this segment’s needs and interests. With the advent of pharmacies in supermarkets and superstores, drugstores are finding that less of their revenue is generated from prescription drug sales. Yet, the pharmacy still drives around 30 percent of drugstore traffic. This results in an interesting dynamic for drugstores. On one hand, capitalizing on prescription drug sales is important and the sales process is becoming more female dominated. Over the past ten years, the number of women pharmacists has grown and now almost 65 percent of pharmacists are female. Pharmacists are one of the only healthcare professionals that an American can consult without making an appointment or paying a fee. Pharmacists are also perceived as being more neutral about drugs than doctors who may be influenced by big pharmaceutical companies.

On the other hand, drugstores are also striving to find new ways to make up for prescription drug income that has been lost to superstores. Home healthcare is one of the fastest growing drugstore product segments, especially among women who are responsible for caring for elderly parents. Another growth area is vitamins and supplements. In addition, many drugstores now offer single serving portions of food. These products are in high demand by singles and the elderly. They also appeal to women shoppers who do not like to frequent convenience stores. Underhill views drugstores as one of the unusual retail businesses that cater to women of every age.

Cosmetics

Cosmetics are sold primarily through three major channels–mass market outlets such as drugstores, prestige channels such as department stores, and standalone beauty stores.

* Mass channels. Self-service cosmetic sales in a drugstore setting are liberating for women because the pricing is transparent. However, this sales model also has its disadvantages. Store managers dislike the cosmetics section because it is labor intensive, prone to shoplifters, and hard to keep clean. There are also space issues. With limited shelf space available for products, drugstores have typically banished mirrors from their cosmetic aisles. Underhill believes that cosmetic sales in mass channels result in frustration for business owners and consumers alike.

* Prestige channels. Many women find cosmetic shopping in department stores intimidating. The prices are hidden and salespeople can also be very pressure-oriented with products. Most prestige cosmetic brands have taken steps to be more “customer friendly.” Another issue with selling cosmetics in department stores is the fact that the customer base is aging. Young women are less inclined to buy makeup at a store that they feel is “unhip.”

* Standalone beauty stores. At branded stores, prestige cosmetic brands have control over the selling environment. Sephora, for example, has reinvented the traditional dynamic between customers and salespeople. It invented the “open sell” where pricing is transparent, selling is collaborative, and all the products are on display.

WOMEN AND HAIR

A woman’s hair is both a fashion statement and an extension of herself. Beauty salons offer many services beyond hair care, including nail and body treatments, tanning and massage, and beauty products. The combination salon-day spa is one of the fastest growing segments in the beauty industry.

For women under 30, hair is a style and personality issue. For those over thirty, haircuts and hair colors have become a form of maintenance. Approximately 60 percent of American women have colored their hair in the last year. In a culture obsessed with youth, many women fear gray hair. Underhill believes that the antidote is a beautiful model with gorgeous gray hair. While hair on a woman’s head is a source of pride, hair elsewhere is a challenge and source of occasional embarrassment.

WOMEN AND SOCIAL NETWORKING

Facebook’s fastest growing demographic group is women aged fifty-five and over. In addition, across every age group, Facebook is growing more quickly among women than men. Underhill believes that Facebook’s popularity can be attributed in part to suburbanization and the car. Both have created large distances between people, but humans still want to connect with friends and family. Once a woman joins Facebook, her behavior is driven primarily by fostering relationships, not transactions.

Among American female Internet users, blogs are the most influential social media. Approximately 42 million American women use some form of social media each week. They engage in networking, writing, reading, and commenting on blogs, and leaving comments on message boards. Social networking and blogging have become informal ways of trading brand names. As a result, they have become an effective and informal means of viral marketing that is a threat to traditional media advertising.